Introduction to Human Growth and Development
A pattern of movement or change
that begins at conception and continues through the life span.
Most development involves growth although it also consists of decay as
Types of Development
Processes - Involves changes in an individuals physical
nature. The development of the brain, height and weight gains,
motor skills, and hormonal changes of puberty.
2. Cognitive Processes
- Involves changes in an individuals thoughts, intellegences, and
language. Memorizing, problem solving, and imagining.
3. Social Emotional
Processes - Involves changes in individuals relationships with other
people, changes in emotion, and changes in personallity.
Periods of Development
Prenatal Period - A time from conception to birth. Produced in approximately a ninth month period.
2. Infancy -
Development period that extends from birth to 18 or 24 months.
Many psychological activities are just beginning. Language,
symbolic thought, sensory motor cordination, and social learning.
3. Early Childhood -
Development period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6
years. Also called the preschool years. Children become
more self sufficient, develop school readiness skills, and spend many
hours at play with their peers.
4. Middle and Late
Childhood - Development period that extends from 6 to 11 years.
Approximately cooresponding to the elementary school years.
Children master the fundamental skills of reading, writing, and
arithimatic and are exposed to the larger world and its culture.
5. Adolescence -
Developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood.
Beginning at approximately at 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 to
21 years of age.
6. Rapid physical changes, dramatic gains in height and weight, and development of sexual characteristics.
7. Early Adulthood -
Developmental period that begins in the late teens or early twenties
and last through the thirities. A time of extablishing personal
and economic independance, career development, and for many a time for
selecting a mate.
8. Middle Adulthood -
The developmental period that begins at 35 to 45 years of age and
extends into the sixties. Expanding personal and social
involvement and responsibility.
9. Late Adulthood -
Development period that begins in the sixties or seventies and lasts
until death. A time for adjustment, decreasing strength and
health, life review, and retirement.
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
children construct their cognitive world they use schemas.
Schemas are a concept of framework that already exists in a persons
mind which organizes and interprets information. Piaget said that
the two processes are responsible for how people use and adapt their
schemas: Assismilation and Accomadation. Assismilation
occurs when individuals incorporate new information into existing
knowledge. Accomation occurs when individuals adjust to new information.
Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensory Motor Stage
- Birth to 2 years of age. The infant constructs an understanding
of the world by coordinating sensory expierences with physical
actions. An infant progesses from reflexive instinctual action at
birth to the beginning of symbolic thought towards the end of the
stage. Objective permanence is a term for one of the infants most
important accomplisments: Understanding that objects and events
continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or
Stage - From 2 to 7 years of age. The child begins to represent
the world with words and images. These words and images reflect
increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory
information and physical action. Operations are mental
representations that are reversible.
Conservation - a belief of the permanance of certain attributes
of objects or situations in spite of superficial changes.
Egocentrism - Piaget meant the ability to distinguish between one owns
prespective and someone elses prespective.
Operational Stage - From 7 to 11 years of age. The child can
reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into sets.
4. Formal Operation
Stage - From 11 years of age through adulthood. The adolescent
reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways. Hypothetical
deductive reasoning - adolescent's ability to develope hypotheses about
ways to solve problems such as an algebraic equation.
Erikson's Eight Lifespan Stages
1. Trust vrs Mistrust
- Occurs during the first year of life. Trust is built when a
baby's basic needs such as comfort, food, and warmth are met. If
the infants needs are not met by responsive sensative caregivers, the
result is mistrust.
2. Autonomy vrs Shame
and Doubt - Occurs from 1 to 3 years of age. The positive side of
the stage involves developing a sense of independance and
autonomy. The negitive side is a sense of shame and doubt.
3. Initiative vrs
Guilt - Occuring from 3 to 5 years of age. Asked to assume more
responsibility for themselves. Children develop initiative.
If they are irresponsible, they develop guilt.
4. Industry vrs
Inferiority - Occurs from 6 until puberty. Industry is achieved
by mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. If they don't
they can feel inferior.
5. Identity vrs
Identity Confusion - Occurs during the adolescent years. A time
when individuals find out who they are, what they are all about, and
where they are going in life.
6. Intimacy vrs
Isolation - Experienced in the twenties and thirties ( early
adulthood). Individuals face developmental task of forming
intimate relationships with others. If not they can development a sense
of social isolation.
7. Generativity vrs
Stagnation - Occurs in the forties and fifties (middle
adulthood). Assising younger generation in developing usefull
lives, which is generativity. Not doing this brings a feeling of
8. Integrity vrs
Despair - Individuals expierence from the sixties on (late
adulthood). People review their lives. If the glances
reveal a life well spent the person feels a sense of satisfation and
integrity is achieved. If not despair may occur.
Kohlberg's 3 Levels and 6 Stages of Development
Stage 1. Punishment and obedience. Rules are obeyed to avoid punishment.
Stage 2. Naive instrumental hedonism. Rules are obeyed to obtain rewards and to have favors returned.
Stage 3. "Good-boy Good-girl"
morality of maintaining good relations and the approval of others.
Rules are obeyed to avoid disapproval or dislike by others.
Stage 4. Authority-maintaining morality. Rules are obeyed to avoid censure by legitimate authorities and to avoid guilt.
Stage 5. Social contract
orientation..., of individual rights, and of democratically accepted
law. Rules are obeyed for social or community welfare.
Stage 6. Universal Ethical Pricniple. Rules are obeyed in order to abide by universal ethical principles.
Jung's Analytical Psychology
Freud's contempory Carl Jung 1875
to 1961, shared an interest in the unconcious. He believed that
Freud underplayed the unconcious mind's role in our personality.
Jung believed that the roots of personality go back to the dawn of
human existance. The collective unconscious is the impersonal
deepest layer of unconscious mind shared by all human beings because of
their common ancestrial past. The common expieriences have made a
deep permanent impression on the human mind. Archetype is the
name Jung gave to the emotionally laden ideas and images in a
collective unconscious that have rich and symbolic meaning. Jung
believed that these archetypes emerge in art, religion, and
dreams. He used archetypes to help people to understand